What is the philosophy behind the importance of observing the rights of neighbors?

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What is the philosophy behind the importance of observing the rights of neighbors?
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In Islam, there are different rights for example the rights of parents on their children, the rights of children on their parents, the rights of teacher, the rights of our lambs etc. and these rights are mentioned in a treaty which is ascribed to our fourth Imam, Imam Sajjad peace be upon him.
One of the rights that we are recommended to observe, is the right of our neighbors.
Allah said in chapter Nisa, verse 36:


وَاعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالجَنبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا
“Worship Allah and do not associate anything with him. be kind to parents and near kinsmen, to the orphans and to the needy, to your neighbor who is your kindred, and to the neighbor at your far side, and the companion at your side, and to the destitute traveler, and to that which your right hands owns. Allah does not love he who is proud and struts.”


It means that a neighbor has some rights on his/her neighbor that each must observe and execute.
The limitation of neighborhood is defined in Islam as forty houses from every side and as scholars said: nowadays the neighbors which live above us or beneath us are included in the limitation of neighborhood too.
Imagine if the citizens of a city observed the rights of their neighbors in the vastness of the above definition of neighborhood, how many problems would get solved.

The limitation of neighborhood is defined in Islam as forty houses from every side and as scholars said: nowadays the neighbors which live above us or beneath us are included in the limitation of neighborhood too.
Imagine if the citizens of a city observed the rights of their neighbors in the vastness of the above definition of neighborhood, how many problems would get solved.

The importance of such observation can be understood from some Narrations, like:
The holy Prophet of Islam said:


“Be aware, the one that his/her neighbor is not safe from his/her harassment, he/she has not (completely) believed in Allah and the Day of Judgment.”


Imam Ali peace be upon him in the last moments of his life said:


“Be afraid of Allah about the neighbors, the holy Prophet recommended (good treatment) about them, he was recommending always to the extent that we thought that he will specify a share for a neighbor to inherit from his/her neighbor.”


The holy Prophet of Islam said:

“neighbors are divided into three groups, those who have three rights upon the members of a house, the rights of Islam, neighborhood and relativeness and these are the neighbors who are relatives and Muslims.

The second group is those who have two rights, the rights of Islam and neighborhood and these are the neighbors who are Muslims and they are not relative.

-If a neighbor is in need, help him/her for example through lending or other ways.
-Visiting the neighbors and getting aware of his/her circumstances, with happy face and full hand.
-If the neighbor is patient, visit him/her.
-Participating in the burial ceremony of a dead neighbor.
-Building your houses in a way that do not irritate the neighbor due to the tallness of them or other obstacles.
-If you have bought a food or fruit, give a part of it to our neighbor or at least hide it from the sight of neighbors.
-Do not let your children to eat a food or fruit etc. that the neighbor has no ability to prepare it.
-Do not let the neighbor to be attracted by the smell of your food that he/she cannot afford it.


And the third group is those who have one right, the right of neighborhood and these are the neighbors who are not Muslims.”
From this Narration we realize that this right of neighborhood must be observed even though the neighbor is not Muslim.
Observing this kind of right can be so much helpful and beneficial in the worldly life and in the hereafter.
I think if I mention briefly some rights that are mentioned in the Narrations, we can see the benefits of that obviously and see what a society we will have if we observe the rights of neighbors, because the members of a society are the neighbors of each other.
So let’s see some rights, like:
-If a neighbor is in need, help him/her for example through lending or other ways.
-Visiting the neighbors and getting aware of his/her circumstances, with happy face and full hand.
-If the neighbor is patient, visit him/her.
-Participating in the burial ceremony of a dead neighbor.
-Building your houses in a way that does not irritate the neighbor due to the tallness of them or other obstacles.
-If you have bought a food or fruit, give a part of it to our neighbor or at least hide it from the sight of neighbors.
-Do not let your children to eat a food or fruit etc. that the neighbor has no ability to prepare it.
-Do not let the neighbor to be attracted by the smell of our food that he/she cannot afford it.
And at last let me mention a Narration from Imam Sadiq peace be upon him, he said:

The good neighborhood enhances the sustenance and makes the city to be developed.

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Daily Hadith
مَن شَرُفَت هِمَّتُهُ عَظُمَت قِيمَتُهُ.
He whose ambition is lofty his value is heightened.