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Ghadir in The Holy Qur’an
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One of the most challenging and controversial subjects is the issue of caliphate and successorship of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S). The main question in this regard is whether the Holy Prophet himself appointed his successor or he relegated it to Moslem community to select the caliph and choose their Imam (leader) themselves through elections.
According to Shiite scholars, Imamate like prophethood is a divine position; therefore, God himself selects the Prophet, his caliph and the leader of mankind in the earth. Also it is irrational on the part of a leader or prophet like Mohammad (S) to leave his nation and followers without any guide, whereas the leader knows full well that the young Moslem community does need a guide and authority after him. Due to these facts, Prophet Mohammad (S) himself appointed Ali (A.S) as his successor in accordance with the divine injunction on Ghadir Day.

Imamate like prophethood is a divine position; therefore, God himself selects the Prophet, his caliph and the leader of mankind in the earth. Also it is irrational on the part of a leader or prophet like Mohammad (S) to leave his nation and followers without any guide, whereas the leader knows full well that the young Moslem community does need a guide and authority after him. Due to these facts, Prophet Mohammad (S) himself appointed Ali (A.S) as his successor in accordance with the divine injunction on Ghadir Day

On the basis of narrations, the following verses of the holy Quran were revealed on Ghadir Day.

[1] يا ايّها الرّسول بلّغ ما انزل إليك من ربّك وإن لم تفعل فما بلّغت رسألته والله يعصمك من النّاس
O’ Apostle, Proclaim the Message which has been revealed to you from your Lord! And if you do not, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) Allah will protect you from (the mischievous) men.


According to the Ahlulbayt (A.S) as well as the majority of Moslem scholars and narrators, this verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S) on Ghadir Day, prior to that historic speech, in which Prophet Mohammad (S) announced wilayat (guardianship) of Ali (A.S). Great Sunnite Huffaz (memorizers of Quran) and famous Sunnite scholars such as Ibn Abi Hatam, Ibn Marduyeh, Tha’labi, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Wahidi, Haskani, Ibn Asakir, Fakhr Razi, Naishaburi, Einy, Jalal Al-Din Suyuti etc. have also narrated that this verse was revealed on Ghadir Da. [2]

According to the Ahlulbayt (A.S) as well as the majority of Moslem scholars and narrators, this verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S) on Ghadir Day, prior to that historic speech, in which Prophet Mohammad (S) announced wilayat (guardianship) of Ali (A.S). Great Sunnite Huffaz (memorizers of Quran) and famous Sunnite scholars such as Ibn Abi Hatam, Ibn Marduyeh, Tha’labi, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Wahidi, Haskani, Ibn Asakir, Fakhr Razi, Naishaburi, Einy, Jalal Al-Din Suyuti etc. have also narrated that this verse was revealed on Ghadir Day.

It proves that this declaration of wilayat was an Almighty Allah’s commandment, and the Holy Prophet of Allah obeyed him calling his companions for congregational prayer, and asking those who were present to inform those who were not present. [3]

When the Holy Prophet's speech ended on Ghadir Day, those who were present paid allegiance to Ali (A.S) as the commander of the faithful, the following verse was revealed:

[4] اليوم اكملت لكم دينكم و اتممت عليكم نعمتي و رضيت لكم الإسلام دينا 
Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed my bounty upon you and have chosen Islam for you as religion.

According to Imam Baqir (A.S), Imam Ali (A.S) in one of his long speech known as “means (Wasila) sermon” says:

“Then the Prophet of Allah (S) went to Ghadir Khum, and the Muslims made something like a pulpit by his order. The Prophet (S) mounted it and raised my arm to the extent that the whiteness of his armpit became visible. Then he said loudly:
من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهمّ وال من والاه , و عاد من عاداه.
Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him.

Some of the great Sunnite scholars and memorizers (of Quran) like Ibn Marduyeh, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Ibn Maghazeli, Muaffaq Maki, Abu Hamed Salehani, Hamyuni etc. have also mentioned that this verse was revealed on the Day of Ghadir Khum . [5]

“Then the Prophet of Allah (S) went to Ghadir Khum, and the Muslims made something like a pulpit by his order. The Prophet (S) mounted it and raised my arm to the extent that the whiteness of his armpit became visible. Then he said loudly: Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him.

Another verse of the Holy Quran, which was revealed on the day of Ghadir - after allegiance, was vowed by people to Amir Al-Mu’minin - concerning a person named Nu’man Fahri is as follow:

[6] سأل سائل بعذاب واقع * للكفرين ليس له دافع
A demander demanded an absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers.

On his documentation Sheikh Furat Ibn Ibrahim Kufi has narrated from Husain Ibn Muhammad Kharifi that he said: “I asked Sufyan Ibn Eyneh which person the verse ﴿سأل سائل﴾ was revealed about?”

Sufyan answered:
“… As the Prophet’s word was circulating among people, Nu’aman became aware of it and went to the prophet saying: “O’ Muhammad! … Right now you have chosen your cousin, and made him our leader, saying: “Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master...” Are these words from you or from Allah?
The Prophet of Allah (S) thrice said: Indeed, from Allah. Then Nu’man Fahri angrily stood up and said: “O’ Allah! If these words of Muhammad are right, descend rain of stone upon us from the sky, so that it be an affliction for the present generation and a sign for coming generations and if they are wrong then descend your misfortune on Muhammad.”
Then he browbeat his camel and opened its shackle. He rode on it and went away. When he was crossing a vast plain, God, the Most High, descended a stone from the sky on his head, in such a way that after hitting his head, the stone came out of his back, causing him perdition.
At this moment, verse﴿سأل سائل﴾ was revealed.
Some prominent Sunnite scholars and narrators such as Tha'labi, Sebt Ibn Juzi, Zarandi, Samahudi, Ibn Sabbagh, Manawi, Halabi etc have also mentioned that that this verse was revealed about Nu’man Fahri. [7]
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that Imamate is a divine principle and there is no role for Moslems to do anything with the issue of Prophet's successorship. It means that Almighty Allah himself decide how to select his prophet and his successors.


[1] Sura Al-Ma'idah: verse 67.
[2] Addur Al-Manthur, vol. 2, p. 298, Asbab Al- Nuzul, p. 115, Tarjumah Al-Amir Al-Mu'minin Min Tarikh Medinah Dimashq, vol. 2, p. 86. Al-Tafsir Al-Kabir, vol. 12, p.49, Tafsir Naishaburi, vol. 6, p.129-130, Umdat Al-Qari, vol. 18, p.206…
[3] Al-Kafi, vol. 1, p.289, narration 4
[4] Al-Kafi, vol. 8, p. 27
[5] Al-Manaqeb, Bin Maghazeli, p. 18, Al-Manaqeb, Khwarizmi, p. 80, Faraed Al-Samtain, vol. 1, p. 74….
[6] Sura Al-Ma'arej: verses 1 and 2.
[7] Tadkirat Al-Khawas, p. 30, Nadam Dorar Al-Samtee, p. 93, Al-Fusul Al-Muhemmah, p. 42, Feid Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, p.281, Al-Sirat Al-Halbiyah, vol. 3, p.334, Noor Al-Absar, p. 78 etc.

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Daily Hadith
الإخْوانُ في اللّهِ تعالى تَدُومُ مَودّتُهُم، لِدَوامِ سَبَبِها.
Brothers [whose brotherhood is] for the sake of Allah, enjoy an enduring Amity, due to the firmness of its foundation