The theory of the separation of religion from politics is a viewpoint that supports marginalizing religion from different fields of human life. According to this viewpoint, man is able to discover the true rules to culture, politics, judgment, economy, commerce, manners, social relationships, etc., and legislate them with the help of science and knowledge, and does not need religion to intervene in his life.
Roots of the prevalence of this viewpoint during the Middle Ages can be traced back to the deficiency of distorted and altered Christianity, the ruling of despotism, the lack of freedom of expression because of the church and the contradiction between science and the teachings of the Bible.
In the Islamic world, the theory has been posed by three different groups: 1- Ruling oppressors that intended to change the caliphate into a type of monarchy 2- Foreign colonizers 3- The movement of corrupt thinkers.
As to refute the viewpoint of the separation of religion and politics, many solid and convincing arguments have been mentioned, two of which we will mention below: 1- Referring to Islamic teachings, texts and sources 2- The Sirah (lifestyle and acts) of the Holy Prophet and his household. Examining the mentioned material clearly shows that the separation of religion and politics does not apply to Islam, because a great portion of Islamic teachings and knowledge cover political and social issues.
Also, in order to understand how to argue in opposition to the advocates of this viewpoint, we will examine and refute one of the important reasons that supports their standpoint in the detailed answer.