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The Movement of Tawwabeen
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On the occasion of the bravely revolt and resistance of Tawwabeen (the Penitents) against Umayyad sultanate, which occurred in the first decade of this Moth (Rabī' al-Thānī), in the year 65 (A.H), we are going to have a glance at this important historical event in the Islamic history.

Imam Husain (A) was martyred in 61 (A.H) by Yazid's forces in Karbala, the neighboring place of Kufa, where thousands of Shiites were living and they had invited Imam Husain (A) to Kufa, but later on they withdrew their hands from assisting and complying Imam (A). Due to this fact, they thought if they do not kill the murderers of Imam (A) and his martyred companions, their sin and disgrace could not be washed off. [1] As a result, they gathered around some of the noblemen of Shias in Kufa such as Sulayman bin Surad al-Khuza’ee, the companions of the Prophet (S), Musayyab bin Najabah al-Fazari, the companion of Imam Ali (A), and Rufa’ah bin Shaddad al-Bajali, who was from among the best companions of Imam Ali (A). [2]

Imam Husain (A) was martyred in 61 (A.H) by Yazid's forces in Karbala, the neighboring place of Kufa, where thousands of Shiites were living and they had invited Imam Husain (A) to Kufa, but later on they withdrew their hands from assisting and complying Imam (A). Due to this fact, they thought if they do not kill the murderers of Imam (A) and his martyred companions, their sin and disgrace could not be washed off. [1] As a result, they gathered around some of the noblemen of Shias in Kufa such as Sulayman bin Surad al-Khuza’ee, the companions of the Prophet (S), Musayyab bin Najabah al-Fazari, the companion of Imam Ali (A), and Rufa’ah bin Shaddad al-Bajali, who was from among the best companions of Imam Ali (A).

Tawwabeen (Penitents) started their activities after the martyrdom of Imam Husain (A) gathering requirements for the battle and inviting people to seek revenge of Imam Husain (A). Many people joined them and after Yazid's death in 64 (A.H) the companions of the Shiite leaders in Kufa rallied around them requiring permits for revolting against ‘Amr bin Hurays, the assistant of Ibn Ziyad.

But, in the year 65 (A.H), when Sulayman bin Surad Khuza’i intended revolting; he called for the chiefs among his associates and they rallied around him. When they gathered at Nukhaylah, [3] Sulayman found them to be quite less in numbers that is why they halted at Nukhaylah for three days and then dispatched someone to those who had disputed with them, and a thousand other men joined them.

They proceeded until they reached the grave of Imam Husain (A) and all of them lamented in a loud voice and wept bitterly. They remained there for one night and day and mourned him, then they bade farewell to his grave and left the place named Qarqisiyah where Zafar bin Qays Kalabi had bolted the doors (of the city) and did not come to meet them. They encamped on its western side and rested there for five days. [4]

When the Syrian army reached just one station away from Aynul Warda, Sulayman arose and enjoined his companions regarding the Hereafter and encouraged them with similar words and said, “Now then! The enemy whom you pursued day and night, has ultimately reached you. [5]

Finally, they fought the Syrian army bravely and many of them were martyred in the battlefield, but this bravely revolt and resistance against Umayyad sultanate paved the ground for another Shiite uprising and revolt against both Umayyad and Zobairians by Mukhtar Saqafi who succeed to kill all the murderers of Imam Husain (A) establishing a Shiite state which was a great historical incident in the history.

Finally, they fought the Syrian army bravely and many of them were martyred in the battlefield, but this bravely revolt and resistance against Umayyad sultanate paved the ground for another Shiite uprising and revolt against both Umayyad and Zobairians by Mukhtar Saqafi who succeed to kill all the murderers of Imam Husain (A) establishing a Shiite state which was a great historical incident in the history.


[1] See: Tabaqat al-Kubra (الطبقات الکبری) v6, p. 25; al-Fotuh (الفتوح) v6, p. 205, 206.
[2] al-Kamel (الکامل فی التاریخ) v4, p. 160.
[3] See: al-Bidayah (البدایه و النهایه) v8, p. 276,277.
[4] See: al-Kamel, v4, p. 178.
[5] See: al-Bidayah, v8, p. 278.

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مَن شَرُفَت هِمَّتُهُ عَظُمَت قِيمَتُهُ.
He whose ambition is lofty his value is heightened.